CENTERCOM PUBLISHERS AND MOSCOW INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY PRESENT a new quarterly journal for students, teachers, professors, and scientists interested in natural sciences and humanities, in the part related to natural sciences (history and philosophy of science, etc.) *** * * * * ** ***** **** ** * * * ** * * *** * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * **** * ** * **** * **** * * * * * * * * ** * * * *** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *** * ** **** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** * **** ** * * ** ** ** * * * * * * **** We welcome you among our readers, subscribers, and contributors. Please, send your requests to get the first paper-version issue of Phystech Journal free of charge to infomag@glas.apc.org You can also order the first issue free of charge from SCINA International, Inc. P.O.Box 1177 Aberdeen SD 57402, USA Fill the folllowing card and return it , please, back to infomag@glas.apc.org *************************************************************************** Please, send me the first paper-version issue of Phystech Journal free of charge to the address Name _______________________________ Title ________________________________ Employer ___________________________ Dept. ________________________________ Address _________________________________________________ City ____________ State ____________________ Country _____________ Zip code _________________ Telephone ___________________________ E-mail ______________________________ I am a __ scientist; __ teacher; __ engineer; __ student other _________________________________________________ My interests are __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ *************************************************************************** The Journal was founded by Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. In our Journal you can read -- Reviews and original articles, written by famous scientists as well as by those who only start their careers in physics, mathematics, and computer science; -- Articles that deal with the methods of teaching most sophisticated topics in the physics and mathematics curriculum and include many interesting problems which help deeper understanding of these topics; -- Essays devoted to culture and philosophy as well as humanitarian problems the Mankind is faced with; -- Notes on various events in the history of science, technology, and education that have been unknown before to wide public; The range of topics covered in the journal is very wide and every reader will be able to find an intriguing article, note, or problem. CONTENTS OF THE FIRST ISSUE GENERAL SECTION Yury G. Krasnikov TO READERS OF THE JOURNAL Nikolai V. Karlov (rector of MIPT) MOSCOW INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY REVIEWS Yury M. Belousov (MIPT) and Voldemar P. Smilga (Kurchatov Center, MIPT) MUON METHOD OF SUBSTANCE INVESTIGATION. PRINCIPLE AND APPLICATIONS Muon spectroscopy is a new method for studying materials and is a good example of how methods of one branch of science---elementary particles physics---prove useful in quite a different branch---solid-state physics. The method offers new possibilities to both theorists and experimentalists. The basics of muon spectroscopy method and its numerous applications are considered in detail. Valery Ya. Krivnov (Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences) ELECTRON-ELECTRON CORRELATIONS AND PEIERLS' INSTABILITY IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS The problem of Peierls' instability in one-dimensional systems is considered with allowance made for electron-electron and electron-phonon correlations. The ground-state energy as a function of the lattice deformation parameter is found for weakly nonideal systems. This function is universal for the models with a correlation gap in the excitation spectrum. In this case correlation effects magnify the instability with respect to the transition into the Peierls state. PROFESSOR TO STUDENT Vladimir P. Krainov (MIPT) SELF-CONSISTENT APPROXIMATION: COMPARISON OF EXACT AND SELF-CONSISTENT SOLUTIONS TO A SIMPLE QUANTUM-MECHANICAL PROBLEM A simple quantum-mechanical problem is solved exactly and its self-consistent solution is derived. Although the use of self-consistent approximation is not formally justified, it is shown by direct comparison that the approximation yields a good solution to the problem in a wide range of parameters. Vladimir A. Ovchinkin (MIPT) THE EXAMINATION ON THERMODYNAMICS AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS AT MIPT MIPT's thermodynamics and molecular physics curriculum is reviewed and illustrated with examination problems, for some of which commented solutions are given. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Aleksei I. Lobanov (MIPT) ON THE STABILITY OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENCE SCHEMES A theorem which relates stability of a nonlinear difference scheme with stability of an auxiliary linear problem (Frechet derivative of the exact solution to the original differential problem) is stated and proved. The approximation proposed is applied to analyzing the stability of some difference schemes for a parabolic equation (nonlinear heat-conduction equation) and hyperbolic one (Hopf and Korteweg-de Vries equations). FIRST STEP (Debuts) Mikhail A. Savrov (MIPT) BROWNIAN MOTION AND PROPAGATION OF QUANTUM PARTICLE. THE FRACTAL NATURE OF BROWNIAN PATH A symmetry between functional integrals in quantum mechanics and the theory of Brownian motion is discussed. The well-known Brownian paths turn out to belong to an extensively studied class of fractals, which generates interest among physicists and mathematicians. HUMANITIES Aleksei V. Pimenov (MIPT) THE HUMANITIES AT MIPT E. Zheltova and E. Gorokhovskaia (Institute of History of Science and Technology, Russian academy of Sciences; MIPT) THE MYTH OF FLIGHT AND THE FLYING MACHINE HISTORY PAGE Yury Yu. Zhitkovskii (Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences) THE FIRST YEARS OF THE INSTITUTE The year of 1947... The Soviet Union is short of highly qualified physicists capable of developing defense programs. Having passed several hard exams, young people from all over the Soviet Union go to Moscow to study at a physico-technical department of the Moscow State University. At the moment, they did not know that the department they study at would be a basis for a new institute---the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. The author recollects what was it all about.